Final presentation of project 5


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SIRDO (Integral system for recycling organic waste)


Final report

Lecturer: Josefina Mena Abraham, Arq.

Tutors:
  • Ute Schneiderat
  • Ana Isabel Zubiet
  • Veronica Corella-Barud

Students:
  • Verena Brand
  • Yadira Cordero
  • Stanislava Kocianova
  • Catherine Wakesho


Objectives


  • Install, demonstrate, monitor and analyze the compost and composting process in SIRDO from Suderburg.
  • Analyze and compare samples between SIRDO and similar toilets visited during the excursions.
  • Learn about the experience of GTA (Alternative Tecnology Group) from Mexico.
  • Survey the social acceptability of composting toilets in Suderburg.


Abstract


  • The lack of inadequate sanitation in the world which cause diseases and pollution, can be avoided with an approach to the problem from the root level.
  • New integrated sanitation and waste management systems will have to consider the different qualities of outputs from human settlements: blackwater, biowaste, greywater and stormwater.
  • Pollution prevention, sewage reduction and water conservation should be maximized.


Introduction


  • The Paradoxes - Nearly half a billion people around the world face shortages of freshwater.
  • In the year 2000 -1,615, 590 954 000 gallons of H2O will be flushed away daily in the U.S    [Porto & Steinfeld (1999)]
  • 1000g feces flushed away leads to 50000g polluted water.
  • 1000g feces decomposed gives 50 g humus to cure the mother earth.
  • Most of the domestic waste water generated is not treated - e.g. 56% of the developing countries have no access to proper sanition [UNDP (2000)]


Health and sanitation


  • An estimated 3 billion people lack a sanitary toilet.(Hinrichsen, D., B. Robey, and U.D. Upadhyay.1998. Solutions for a Water-Short World. Population Reports, Series M, No.14, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Population Information Program, Baltimore, Maryland)
  • Approximately 4 billion cases of diarrheal disease occur every year, causing 3-4 million deaths, mostly among children. (See references cited in: Hinrichsen, D., B. Robey, and U.D. Upadhyay.1998. Solutions for a Water-Short World. Population Reports, Series M, No.14, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Population Information Program, Baltimore, Maryland)
  • Over 1.2 billion people are at risk because they lack access to clean water. (See references cited in: Hinrichsen, D., B. Robey, and U.D. Upadhyay.1998. Solutions for a Water-Short World. Population Reports, Series M, No.14, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Population Information Program, Baltimore, Maryland)


Conventional Sanitary concepts to be considered.


I
Use of clean water (40%) to flush away toilet wastes produces a break down by a process that utilises oxygen.

II
Mixing of industrial and domestic effluents.

III
Lost of nutrients which are contained in urine and feces.


INTRODUCTION 2


  • To remedy these problems we need to
    • conserve water
    • separate constituents in waste waters
    • recycle and reuse the water
    • prevent pollution
  • Dry and Wet SIRDO ( as examples) offer possibilities to attaining the mentioned goals
  • So what does SIRDO offers?



 

Integral Domestic Wastewater and Waste Management


 


SIRDO


  • Is a conservative technology that use the principles of:
    • Preserve
    • Conserve
    • Protect

    • Waterless Sanitation (Dry SIRDO)
    • Reuse of water (Wet SIRDO)
    • Recycling of organic waste (Dry and Wet SIRDO)




SIRDO principles


WET SIRDO
  • The use of conventional toilets
  • Aerobic decomposition of organic and fecal matter
  • Recycling black and grey water (in 2 separated networks)
DRY SIRDO
  • Aerobic decomposition of human excreta (animal).
  • Produce a biofertilizer free of pathogens.
  • No use of water for sewage




Activities


SIRDO Concepts and experience Principles of dry and wet SIRDO Experiences about the use of wet Sirdo. Microcredits Community action programs. Case study. Data comparison and analysis in Mexico.
Installation and use of SIRDO in Suderburg. Dosis of bacteria and nutrients. Main. Monitoring. Samples and analysis in laboratory. C
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Excursions To ecological settlements (Bielefeld, Lübeck), To a composting plant Samples and analysis for comparison of process.  
Our Research Discussions about waste water treatment systems. Analysis of present sewage and septic systems. Research of compost process. Benefits of natural waste treatment systems




EXCURSIONS


  • Bielefeld Ecological settlement
  • Wienhausen (Decentralized systems)
  • Hannover Hägewiesen
  • Hannover Villa Kunterbunt
  • Lübeck Flintenbreite - Ecological settlement
  • Composting plant Ganderkesee
  • Composting plant Bork


Composting toilet - Bielefeld


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Bielefeld - Ecological settlement


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Lübeck Flintenbreite - Ecological settlement

Rainwater drainage
Click on image to enlarge.

Links to the websites of the project and the engineering company:

www.flintenbreite.de

www.otterwasser.de
Click on image to enlarge.


Hannover Villa Kunterbunt

See Project 1 (still under construction).



Two concepts to deal with human manure as a resource


Technology Composting Digestion
Conditions Aerob Anaerob
Realisation Good, long experience, safe Possible, but unsafe, not enough data
Starting material All biogen waste, preferable rich in structure, moisture content < 70 % All biogen waste but not with lignin (wood), preferable with weak structure with a high water content
Place needed High, dependent on turn over 0,4-1,9 m2/Mg (for compost) Pure: low (0,1-1,2 m2/Mg) With final rotting: 0,31,6 m2/Mg
Emmissions Low waste water,
odour: high
Wet fermentation a lot of waste water, dry fermentation less, smell less than for aerob treatment
Using of Energy Only gain of warmth possible Electricity and warmth, Biogas production
End product With appropiate quality to sell Limiting condition for selling purposes aerob rotting afterwards, salinity contents in the compost lower




Phases of Composting


Phase Mesophilic Thermophilic Maturation
Temperature Moderate High Cool
°C 20°C - 40°C 40°C - 65°C / > 70°C below 30°C
Organisms Bacteria Fungis, Bacteria (Actinomycetes) Bacteria, Fungis, Macrofauna
Duration Time Couple of days Few days to several months Several months
pH a bit acid > 7 constant > 7
Function Initial decomposition and after thermophilic phase decomposition of wooden substances (lignin) (40 45°C) C/N ratio > 20 : 1 hydrocarbonates Destroying human and plant pathogens (hygienisation within 3 weeks). High temperatures accelarate fat, complex carbohydrates and protein breakdown. "Curing" or maturation of remaining organic matter C/N ratio 10 15: 1
Maturation grade Preliminary rotted Fresh compost Mature compost




Microorganisms


Microorganisms Bacteria Mesophilic Bacteria Thermophilic Bacteria Actinomycetes Fungis Molds Yeast
T 0 40°C > 40°C Bacillus
>65°C (Endo)Spores
> 50°Cand in cooler curing phase most
Found in / as conditions topsoil Hot springs (Thermus) >70°C Soil (earthy smell) outer part (10-15cm) if hot, thread-like branched filaments Strict aerob
Function in Composting Easy degradable substances
Later: lignin, lignoprotein
First easy degradable substances, mainly (hemi-) cellulose Degrade complex organics: cellulose, lignin, chitin, protein Tough debris: bark, woody stems, newspaper when cellulose exhausted too dry, acidic, low Nitrogen




Compost Process Analysis


  • Compost Chemistry
  • Compost Physics
  • Compost Microbiology
  • Monitoring the Compost Process




Compost Chemistry


  • C/N Ratio
    - The ideal C/N ratio for compost is 30:1
  • Carbon
    - is the energy source and a building block provides 50% of the mass of microbial cells
  • Nitrogen
    - is necessary for cell growth and function
  • pH
    - pH between 5.5 and 8.5 is optimal for compost microorgansims
  • Nutrient Balance
  • Oxygen
    - oxygen concentrations more than 10% are optimal for aerobic composting




Compost Chemistry Analysis


  • Moisture Content and Dry Weight
  • Organic Matter
  • pH
  • C/N Ratio
  • Carbon Content / Carbonate
  • Plant-Available Phosphorus and Potassium
  • N min (NO3 and NO2)
  • N min (NH4)
  • Nitrogen
  • Exchangable Cations (Cation Exchange Capacity, CEC)




Compost Physics


  • Temperature Curve
  • Mechanisms of Heat Loss
  • Particle Size
  • Aeration
    - oxygen is essential for the metabolism and respiration of microorganisms and for oxidizing the various organic molecules
  • Moisture
    - 50 - 60% is the optimum for composting




Compost Microbiology Methods


  • Determination of total amount of Microorganisms
    - Are the human pathogens destroyed?
  • Determination of Total Coliforms Bacteria
    - ENDO AGAR Plates Containing Lactose
  • Determination of Fecal Coliforms Bacteria
    - m-FC AGAR Containing Aniline Blue




Monitoring the Composting Process


  • Compost Moisture
  • Compost Temperature
  • Compost pH
  • Compost Odours
    - ammonia odour-mix too rich in nitrogen
    - musty odour-mix is too moist
  • Microbes




SIRDO en Colonia Nueva Galeana Ciudad Juarez Chihuahua


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END OF PHASE ONE


THANKS !

Please try SIRDO,
you still have a chance ...






For the results click here.





 


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